There has been increased cardiovascular mortality for the past five decades that have raised the concern of the epidemiologists which made them gather information related to this mortality and the evidence appeared to be a result of the influence of environmental factors particularly long-term consumption of hard water. The world health organization observe hard water as water with high mineral content, the predominant metallic ions in hard water are calcium and magnesium but they are also small quantities of other polyvalent metallic ions such as iron, aluminum, manganese, barium, and zinc that play part in the hardness of the water. To test water hardness try to make foam with soap, hard water will need more soap to produce a lather compared to soft water. Water hardness is measured in the concentration of calcium carbonate which is expressed in milligram per liter, soft water has calcium carbonate below 60mg/l, where water with calcium carbonate between 60-120 mg/l is moderately hard and hard water has calcium carbonate of 120-180 mg/l. Having sufficient essential minerals such as calcium and magnesium is vital for human health, for example calcium is required by the body to strength bones and vital in pregnant women, and old people, calcium deficiency is associated with kidney stones(nephrolithiasis), hypertension, obesity, insulin resistance and some other health conditions, human body need magnesium to produce enzymes that body needs to generate energy for metabolism, lack of enough magnesium has been associated with , cardiac arrhythmia and pre-eclampsia (gestation hypertension). The benefits of these minerals are only realized when they are provided at an optimum level implying that consuming them in excess as may be in the case of hard water can be harmful to human health. This article has focused on the health effect of consuming excess minerals present in hard water to human health.
Drinking of hard water that can lead to an excess supply of calcium in the body has not been proofed as a health risk especially to healthy individuals, however, there are concerns for people with kidney problems which may delay in excreting the excess calcium from their system additionally people with the milk-alkali syndrome have been classified as risk population to the consumption of hard water and therefore necessary precautions are required.
Taking hard water with high magnesium mineral has not been proofed a health risk especially to a healthy population, however, people with renal insufficiency will experience bowel discomfort such as diarrhea but this is adaptable, additionally, consuming water with high magnesium level has been linked with laxative effects, but there has no strong relationship found between consumption of hard water with high magnesium and calcium level with cardiovascular mortality. These are the main health concerns about the drinking of hard water.